Methodology

This annual report analyses electricity data from every country in the world to give the first accurate view of the global electricity transition in 2020. It aggregates generation data by fuel by country from 2000. 68 countries comprising 90% of world electricity generation have full-year data to 2020 and have formed the basis of an estimate for changes in worldwide generation. All remaining countries have full data as far as 2019. G20 countries, which comprise 84% of world electricity generation, each have a separate in-depth country analysis.

The data used in this report is provided on an ‘as is’ basis, and was assembled using the best available data at the time of publication. We take no responsibility for errors. Please do contact us if you spot any errors or have suggestions at info@ember-climate.org

Definitions

Generation data is mapped into nine generation types. More information on mapping for different sources and countries can be viewed below. For the purpose of analysis these generation types are aggregated into different groupings as follows

1 Solar includes both solar thermal and solar photovoltaic generation, and where possible distributed solar generation is included.

2 Where possible, hydro generation excludes any contribution from pumped hydro generation.

3 Bioenergy generation includes generation from combustible renewables. For certain historical data sources all waste generation (renewable and non-renewable) is not disaggregated from other combustible renewables generation – this has all been mapped to bioenergy.

4 Other renewables generation includes geothermal, tidal and wave generation.

5 Other fossil generation includes generation from oil and petroleum products, as well as manufactured gases.

 

For the purposes of this report, renewables are classified in line with the IPCC and include bioenergy. However, the climate impact of bioenergy is highly dependent on the feedstock, how it was sourced and what would have happened had the feedstock not been burnt for energy. The current EU bioenergy sustainability criteria do not sufficiently regulate out high-risk feedstocks and therefore electricity generation from bioenergy cannot be automatically assumed to deliver similar climate benefits to other renewables sources (such as wind and solar) over timescales relevant to meeting the commitments of the Paris Agreement. For more information please see Ember’s reports: The Burning Issue (June 2020) and Playing with Fire (December 2019). 

 

Overview

Historical data

Data from the United States Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) international data browser forms the backbone of this report. With the exception of China, India, EU-27 and the United States, all data from 2000-2019 is taken from this source. For some generation types in non-OECD countries, 2019 data had not yet been published by the EIA. Where available, we used national data to estimate these values, otherwise, the average change for that generation type seen over 2015-2018 was added onto the 2018 generation value.

Thermal disaggregation

EIA international data does not disaggregate generation from fossil fuels. This was performed by Ember using two methods. If possible, the split between fossil fuels was estimated using the ratios of fossil generation types in BP’s statistical review of world energy. Fossil generation was disaggregated for any remaining countries by using the capacity split by fossil fuel type, taken from the WRI’s global power plant database.

2020 data

Data for 2020 is estimated using national sources. The year-on-year changes in generation for each fuel type from these sources are added onto the historical 2019 data to obtain a value for 2020. Data sources for Argentina, Canada, Ecuador, Kazakhstan and Russia provide no disaggregation of thermal generation – for these countries, estimates of the split between different generation types were made using the IEA’s monthly electricity generation statistics and BP’s statistical review of world energy.

World data

World data for 2000-2019 is the sum of all country data. World data for 2020 is estimated by summing generation for all countries where we have 2019 and 2020 data. Together this comprises 90% of global generation. The percentage changes in each fuel type from 2019 to 2020 are then applied to the world generation data for 2019, to create an estimate of global generation in 2020.

 

G20 countries

Argentina

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: Compañia Administradora Del Mercado Mayorista Eléctrico (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from BP data.
  • Latest thermal generation data was disaggregated using IEA monthly data (coal and gas).

 

Australia

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: OpenNEM Project (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from BP data.
  • Assumed that net imports were zero in 2020.
  • Data from OpenNem includes data for both the National Electricity Market (NEM) as well as the South West Interconnected System (SWIS) in Western Australia.
  • SWIS data provided by OpenNEM is missing some gas generation. This could lead to slightly lower calculated changes in gas generation. 

 

Brazil

Historical data: EIA (2000-2019)

Latest data: Operador Nacional do Sistema Eléctrico (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from BP data.
  • The latest data does not include net imports. It was assumed that there were no changes in imports in 2020 compared to 2019

 

Canada

Historical data: EIA (2000-2019)

Latest data: Statistics Canada (2020), Canada Energy Regulator (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from BP data.
  • 2020 data from Statistics Canada only covers generation data up to November at the time of publishing, so 2019 values for December were assumed.
  • Thermal generation is not disaggregated in data from Statistics Canada. Disaggregation is achieved by splitting Statistics Canada data using IEA thermal ratios for coal, gas, other fossil and biomass.
  • Data on net imports in 2020 is retrieved from the Canada Energy Regulator 

 

China

Historical data: China Electricity Council (2000-2020)

  • Historical data is from the China Electricity Council (CEC) where possible. Where CEC data is unavailable data from the EIA international data browser has been used to complete historical generation time series.
  • Other fossil generation is determined by subtracting generation from coal, gas and biomass from total thermal generation
  • 2020 coal generation has been taken from CEC analysis. Remaining thermal generation has been allocated by assuming typical growth rates for gas and biomass, and allocating any remaining thermal generation to other fossil
  • Net imports data has been taken from EIA’s international data browser, and has been carried over to 2020 as no data available at the time of publishing.

 

EU-27

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

France

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Germany

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Data taken from AG-Energiebilanzen.

 

India

Historical data: Central Electricity Authority of India (2000-2020)

Latest data: Power System Operation Corporation (2020)

  • Historical data is from the Central Electricity Authority of India (CEA) where possible. As CEA annual data is reported by financial year, calendar year data has had to be built up from monthly reporting. Where data is unavailable (2000-2004 for conventional generation, 2000-2014 for non-hydro renewables), data from the EIA international data browser has been used to complete historical generation.
  • Latest net imports data retrieved from Power System Operation Corporation (POSOCO) monthly reports, all other 2020 data from CEA.

 

Indonesia

Historical data: EIA (2000-2019)

Latest data: Unavailable

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from BP data.
  • 2020 data was unavailable at the time of publishing. In certain figures in the report, 2019 data is shown in place of 2020 data, when comparing to other countries.

 

Italy

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Japan

Historical data: EIA (2000-2019)

Latest data: Agency for Natural Resources and Energy (2020), Renewable Energy Institute (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from BP data.
  • Data from the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy (Enecho) was only available up to October 2020 when the data was retrieved. Data from the Renewable Energy Institute (REI) was used to estimate data for November and December 2020.
  • Latest thermal generation data from the Renewable Energy Institute was disaggregated using IEA monthly data (coal, gas and other fossil).
  • Assumed that net imports were zero in 2020.

 

Mexico

Historical data: EIA (2000-2019)

Latest data: International Energy Agency (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from BP data.
  • Data from the International Energy Agency (IEA) was only available up to November 2020 when the data was retrieved. Data from December 2019 was used to estimate data for December 2020.

 

Russia

Historical data: EIA (2000-2019)

Latest data: System Operator of the Unified Energy System (2020), Entso-E (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from BP data.
  • Thermal generation includes generation from industry.
  • Thermal generation for 2020 is disaggregated using thermal ratios derived from BP data (coal, gas and other fossil). As a result, the same percentage reduction is seen across each fossil fuel generation type in 2020.
  • Net imports data for 2020 is estimated using data from Entso-E.

 

Saudi Arabia

Historical data: EIA (2000-2019)

Latest data: Unavailable

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from BP data.
  • 2020 data was unavailable at the time of publishing. In certain figures in the report, 2019 data is shown in place of 2020 data, when comparing to other countries.

 

South Africa

Historical data: EIA (2000-2019)

Latest data: Eskom (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from BP data.

 

South Korea

Historical data: EIA (2000-2019)

Latest data: Korea Electric Power Corporation (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from BP data.
  • Assumed that net imports were zero in 2020.

 

Turkey

Historical data: EIA (2000-2019)

Latest data: Enerji Piyasaları İşletme A.Ş. (2020), Türkiye Elektrik İletim A.Ş. (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from BP data.
  • Solar generation from Enerji Piyasaları İşletme A.Ş. (Epias) does not include unlicensed generation. Solar generation is obtained using Türkiye Elektrik İletim A.Ş. (Teias) monthly statistics.

 

United Kingdom

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

United States

Historical data: Energy Information Administration (2000-2020)

  • Solar generation includes small-scale solar generation – the EIA provides this data from 2014 onwards. This causes a small discontinuity in the solar generation time series from 2013 to 2014.
  • Net imports data was only available up to November 2020 when data was accessed. It was assumed that data for December 2020 was the same as December 2019.

 

Other countries

Austria

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Azerbaijan

Historical data: EIA (2000-2019)

Latest data: United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics Online

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.
  • The United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics Online only provides a total monthly figure for electricity generation that is not split into different sources of electricity. It was assumed that all growth in electricity production in 2020 could be assigned to gas generation, as other generation types have remained largely unchanged in recent years.
  • 2020 data only covers generation data up to November at the time of publishing, so 2019 values from the United Nations were assumed for December 2020

 

Bangladesh

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: Power Grid Company of Bangladesh (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.

 

Belarus

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics Online (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.
  • The United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics Online only provides a total monthly figure for electricity generation that is not split into different sources of electricity. It was assumed that all growth in electricity production in 2020 could be assigned to gas generation, as other generation types have remained largely unchanged in recent years.
  • The latest data only covers generation data up to November at the time of publishing, so 2019 values from the United Nations were assumed for December 2020
  • Assumed that net imports were zero in 2020.

 

Belgium

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Bolivia

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: Comité Nacional de Despacho de Carga (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.
  • Assumed the net imports were zero in 2020.

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Bulgaria

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Chile

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: Coordinador Eléctrico Nacional (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.
  • Assumed that net imports were zero in 2020.
  • Split between other fossil and coal generation is likely to be underestimating coal generation – we aim to improve this in future releases

 

Colombia

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: XM (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.
  • Assumed that net imports were zero in 2020.

 

Costa Rica

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: Centre Nacional de Control de Energía (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.

 

Croatia

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Cyprus

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Czech Republic

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Denmark

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Ecuador

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: Operador Nacional de Electricidad (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.
  • 2020 data only covers generation data up to October at the time of publishing, so 2019 values from Operador Nacional de Electricidad were assumed for November and December 2020.
  • Latest thermal generation data was disaggregated using IEA monthly data (coal, gas and other fossil).
  • Assumed that net imports were zero in 2020.

 

Estonia

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Finland

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Greece

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Hungary

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Iran

Historical data: EIA (2000-2018)

Latest data: Tavanir (2019-2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from BP data.
  • Data from Tavanir forms an estimate for both 2019 and 2020, as data from EIA is incomplete. Tavanir provides data on ‘Thermal’, ‘Hydro & Renewable’, and ‘Imports’. 
  • It is assumed that growth in ‘Hydro & Renewable’ generation can be assigned to hydro generation. Changes in thermal generation are disaggregated by using changes in fossil fuel consumption for electricity.

 

Ireland

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Kazakhstan

Historical data: EIA (2000-2019)

Latest data: Samruk Energy (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from BP data.
  • Thermal generation from Samruk is not disaggregated, so the same percentage change in generation is applied across each fossil fuel type in 2020.

 

Latvia

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Lithuania

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Luxembourg

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Malta

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Mongolia

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: Mongolian Statistical Information Service (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.
  • For 2020 data, It was assumed that all growth in fossil generation can be assigned to coal generation, and all growth in renewable generation can be assigned to wind generation.

 

Montenegro

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Netherlands

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

New Zealand

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.
  • Data from MBIE is published quarterly and was only available up to Q3 2020 at the time of publishing. Data from Q4 2019 was used to estimate generation data for the final quarter of 2020.

 

Nigeria

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: Vanguard (2020), Transmission Company of Nigeria (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.
  • 2020 changes in hydro generation were estimated using data from the Transmission Company of Nigeria.
  • Changes in production estimated from analysis obtained by Vanguard. Any change in production not accounted for by hydro change was allocated to gas generation.

 

Norway

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: ENTSO-E (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.

 

Pakistan

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2018)

Latest data: National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (2019-2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.
  • Data from NEPRA forms an estimate for both 2019 and 2020, as data from EIA is incomplete.
  • Mixed generation is mapped to other fossil.

 

Peru

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: Comité de Operación Económica del Sistema Interconectado (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.

 

Philippines

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: National Grid Corporation of the Philippines (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.
  • Assumed that net imports were zero in 2020.
  • NGCP data only available up to Q3 2020 at the time of publishing – generation data from NGCP for Q4 2019 was used to estimate generation in the final quarter of 2020.

 

Poland

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Portugal

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Romania

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Singapore

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: Energy Market Authority (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.
  • Thermal generation data from EMA is mapped entirely to gas
  • Assumed that net imports were zero in 2020.

 

Slovakia

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Slovenia

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Spain

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Sweden

Historical data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

Latest data: Ember: ‘Europe’s Power Sector in 2020’

  • See Ember’s European report for full details. Historical data from Eurostat, with latest data estimated by Ember using national sources.

 

Switzerland

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: ENTSO-E (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.

 

Taiwan

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: Taiwan Power Company (2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from BP data.
  • Data from Taiwan Power Company for ‘Cogen’ is mapped as gas generation.
  • Assumed that net imports were zero in 2020.

 

Tajikistan

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics Online

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.
  • The United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics Online only provides a total monthly figure for electricity generation that is not split into different sources of electricity. It was assumed that all growth in electricity production in 2020 could be assigned to hydro generation, as other generation types have remained largely unchanged in recent years.
  • The 2020 data only covers generation data up to October, so 2019 values from the United Nations were assumed for November and December 2020
  • Assumed that net imports were zero in 2020.

 

Thailand

Historical data: EIA(2000 – 2018)

Latest data: Energy Policy and Planning Office, Ministry of Energy (2019 – 2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from BP data.
  • Data from the Energy Policy and Planning Office forms an estimate for both 2019 and 2020, as data from EIA is incomplete.

 

Tunisia

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics Online

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.
  • The United Nations Monthly Bulletin of Statistics Online only provides a total monthly figure for electricity generation that is not split into different sources of electricity. It was assumed that all growth in electricity production in 2020 could be assigned to gas generation, as other generation types have remained largely unchanged in recent years.
  • The 2020 data only covers generation data up to October, so 2019 values from the United Nations were assumed for November and December 2020
  • Assumed that net imports were zero in 2020.

 

Ukraine

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: Ukrenergo

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from BP data.

 

Uruguay

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: Ministerio de Industria Energía y Minería

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from WRI capacity data.

 

Vietnam

Historical data: EIA (2000 – 2019)

Latest data: Vietnam Electricity (EVN) (2019-2020)

  • Disaggregation of historical fossil fuel generation was performed using thermal ratios derived from BP data.
  • Solar generation for 2019 was estimated using EVN data.
  • Changes in 2020 were estimated using data up to October 2020 since no annual data was available at the time of publishing.

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Cover of Ember's report: India, Peaking Coal?

This report showcases a global dataset for electricity generation & demand across 217 countries from 2000 to 2020. Data for 2020 covers 90% of the world’s electricity production.

Each year, we aim to be the earliest authoritative report to give insights into last year’s global electricity generation changes – offering an unbiased picture of the transition to fossil-free electricity.

Download global trends report PDF:

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