Delivering on its ambitious renewables targets is critical for India’s clean transition
India’s share of wind and solar power reached a record high of 9% in 2022, but this could only meet a quarter of its electricity demand growth (+124 TWh) during this period. However, its ambitious 450 GW renewable capacity target can ensure that all its additional demand growth by 2030 comes from clean power.
Fossil fuels accounted for 77% of India’s electricity production in 2022. Coal had the largest share at 74%, followed by gas (2.7%), and other fossil (0.1%). India’s emissions are driven by this high reliance on fossil fuels and a large population. The country has a low power demand per capita of 1.3 MWh, one third that of the global average (3.6 MWh). India’s electricity generation, however, is 45% more carbon intensive (632 gCO2/kWh) than the global average (436 gCO2 per kWh).
In 2022, India surpassed China to become the world’s most populous nation. As growth continues amid rapid economic development, so too will India’s need for electricity. Meeting that with clean electricity would mean growing clean sources quickly and at a vast scale.
Per the IEA Net Zero Emissions scenario, to limit global temperature rises to 1.5C, India should phase out sub-critical coal plants by 2030, fully decarbonise electricity by 2040 and become net-zero by 2050. India has committed to reach Net Zero by 2070 and 50% installed renewable energy capacity by 2030.
Last updated: April 2023